The Pilgrim Wars of 1201-1204 were a series of wars between the Christian Pilgrms (England, Germany, France and Byzantine Empire) and the Ayyubid dynasty. The wars began after pilgrims started revolting in Jerusalem, Antioch and Tyre, claiming most of their goods were stolen by Muslim criminals and bandits. The Ayyubids, in response, massacred 250 Christians in Jerusalem, errupting a religious war. At least 17,000 Christians and 23,000+ Muslims were killed in the war, most being defeated in the Battle of Tyre and the Battle at Krak des Chevaliers. The deathliest battle occured in 1203, at Tyre when the Christian Pilgrims and Crusaders began their march onto Tyre, yet were stopped by a small Muslim ambush. The ambush resulted in a major battle at Tyre and resulted in 15,000 deaths, and 11,000 of the total deaths were Arab-Muslim infantry and cavalry.
Commander Frederick of Germany led his army in the Siege of Jerusalem. With approximately 120,000 infantry and 60,000 cavalry supported with 150 trebuchets and 200 catapults, he ultimately captured Jerusalem after a six-month defense led by the Ayyubids. Caliph Scorpion I, the leader of the Ayyubids in the battle, surrendered after he was captured in Akko. After Jerusalem was captured in 1204, Frederick's army advanced onto Antioch, ultimately causing the Ayyubids to send mercenaries instead of actual troops. The 7,400 strong mercenary defense force guarded Antioch alongside 2,600 cavalry against 118,000 infantry and 60,000 cavalry. The Antioch garrison holded out for 1 week before surrendering. The entire 2,600 strong cavalry was captured by the Christians and 6,900 mercenaries died while 400 were slaughtered in response to the Jerusalem Massacre of 1201, with 80 sold into slavery and the 20 best soldiers being hired as expert military commanders in the Christian army.